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演技大赏【科学猫·化学】软塑料包装毒性巨大,匹兹堡大学发现添加剂改变人类胎盘-科学猫科普

by admin on 2017-02-23

【科学猫·化学】软塑料包装毒性巨大,匹兹堡大学发现添加剂改变人类胎盘-科学猫科普李元芳是谁


导读:有新的证据表明,塑料和其它产品中被称为邻苯二甲酸酯的化学分子(增塑剂)会改变两种关键激素和一种介导人类胎盘炎症的分子。 但目前仍不清楚这些改变最终可能对胎儿的健康和性发育产生什么影响。为了安全起见,请大家,特别是怀孕妇女尽量避免直接用皮肤接触软塑料或者使用保鲜膜直接触碰食物台湾民法典。

匹兹堡大学最近的一项研究证实了孕妇以前的发现,通过实验发现邻苯二甲酸酯破坏了一个重要的妊娠激素hCG(人绒毛膜促性腺激素),是正常男性化所必需的胎儿男性生殖器的发育。在男性中,缩短的肛门和生殖器之间的距离与精子数量较低有关。
A recent University of Pittsburgh study has confirmed a previous finding in pregnant women through experimental methods that found that phthalates disrupt an important pregnancy hormone hCG — the human chorionic gonadotropin hormone — that’s necessary for proper masculinization and development of male genitalia in fetuses. In men傻冒经理 , the shortened space between the anus and the genitals, called the anogenital distance, is related to lower sperm counts.
最近在《环境健康展望》杂志上发表的两项配套研究中的第二项研究结果显示,邻苯二甲酸酯类分子不仅改变了hCG的合成,而且改变了另一个重要的妊娠激素孕酮和参与介导炎症的分子前列腺素。
Now, the second of two companion studies — published recently in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives, with the previous study published in Environmental Health — shows that phthalate levels alter the synthesis of not only hCG but also the genes that make progesterone, another important pregnancy hormone, and prostaglandin, a molecule involved in mediating inflammation.

研究表明,测试中的邻苯二甲酸酯可以降低男性胎盘中的hCG基因表达林玮婕,同时在雌性胎盘中将其浓度提高。一种称为邻苯二甲酸二苄酯的分子对孕激素和前列腺素基因具有相似的性别逆转作用,而所有这三种分子都是维持正常妊娠所必需的因素。曾经有台湾报道一个孕妇过度接触此类物质,导致生下的男婴生殖器只有米粒大小。
The study shows that phthalates tested in the study reduce the hCG gene expression in the placentas of male fetuses, while raising it in the placentas of females. One phthalate called monbenzyl phthalate had a similar reverse effect by sex on progesterone and prostaglandin genes. All three molecules are well understood as factors necessary to maintaining a normal pregnancy.
美国疾病控制与预防中心(CDC)将邻苯二甲酸酯描述为“一组使塑料更加柔性和更难破坏的化学物质,所以它们通常被称为增塑剂”。增塑剂使塑料更加柔软、耐用、持久和透明 。邻苯二甲酸酯广泛用于香水、香皂、洗发水、发胶、指甲油、皮肤保湿剂、柔性塑料、浴帘、塑料管道、木材饰面、洗涤剂和壁纸等许多产品。
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention describes phthalates as “a group of chemicals used to make plastics more flexible and harder to break.” “They are often called plasticizers” that make plastics more flexible, durable, longer lasting and transparent, it says.Phthalates are used in perfume, soap, shampoo音乐奇侠 , hair spray, nail polish, skin moisturizers, flexible plastic, shower curtains, plastic plumbing pipes, wood finishes爱如潮涌, detergents, wallpaper and many other products.

然而CDC还不停的增加名单:乙烯基地板、胶粘剂、润滑油、汽车塑料和塑料衣服,如雨衣徐银香。其它用途包括塑料包装薄膜和床单、花园软管、充气玩具、血液储存容器、医用管和一些儿童玩具。
The CDC adds to the list: vinyl flooring, adhesives, lubricating oils, automotive plastics and plastic clothes such as raincoats. Other uses include plastic packaging film and sheets, garden hoses, inflatable toys, blood-storage containers, medical tubing and some children’s toys.
这项研究的重点是邻苯二甲酸酯水平 (与孕妇的尿液中测量的相同) 对人胎盘细胞的影响。胎盘是附着在子宫上的胎儿器官,能够滋养和维持胎儿。
The study focused on the impact of phthalate levels — identical to those measured in the urine of pregnant women — on human placental cells. The placenta is a fetal organ attached to the uterus that nourishes and maintains the fetus.
该研究的主要作者是匹兹堡大学公共卫生研究生院的珍妮弗阿迪比(Jennifer J. Adibi)李再勇简历 ,她说人们现在对邻苯二甲酸酯有“无处不在的接触”,99%的育龄妇女有可测量的接触水平。研究人员将继续努力确定这些化学物质暴露对胎儿和新生儿的具体影响。
The study’s lead author Jennifer J. Adibi of the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, said people now have “ubiquitous exposure” to phthalates, with 99 percent of women of child-bearing age having measurable exposure levels. Researchers continue working to determine what specific impacts, if any, those levels of chemical exposure have on fetuses and newborns.

接下来,她的研究重点转移到hCG激素的变化上,如试点研究所表明的那样,这些变化潜在地可能导致在生命的头三年中脑发育的中断,以及婴儿生殖器的正常发育,语言技能演技大赏 ,认知和与男性化有关的行为。
Next, her research focus shifts to how changes in the hCG hormone, as pilot studies have shown朗尼沙发 , potentially can lead to disruptions in brain development during the first three years of life, as well as proper development of the baby’s genitals, language skills, cognition and behavior related to masculinization.
已经在啮齿类动物中进行的邻苯二甲酸酯研究已经显示出不育的风险较高魏韵萧 ,晚年精子数量较低变色蛇,癌症的高风险和睾酮和雌激素水平的差异。然而,由于胎盘可以作为胎儿的保护性过滤器和屏障,胎盘激素和其它分子的变化转化为胎儿可比较的变化,毕业于哈佛大学公共卫生学院阿迪比博士说。
Already phthalate studies in rodents have shown higher risk of infertility, lower sperm counts later in life, high risk of cancer and differences in testosterone and estrogen levels. It isn’t automatic, however, that changes in placental hormones and other molecules translate into comparable changes in the fetus, given the fact the placenta can serve as a protective filter and barrier for the fetus, said Ms. Adibi, who holds a doctor of science degree from T.H. Chan Harvard School of Public Health.
这些研究都是在阿迪比博士在加州大学旧金山分校时开始的陈柯帆 ,但是在匹兹堡公共卫生学院完成,现在她是流行病学、妇产科和生殖科学的助理教授。“这些研究结果在分子水平上提供了证据,揭示其中邻苯二甲酸酯可能会改变胎盘的功能,并且提供了一个初步的对不同性别有不同反应的机理假说”。
The studies all began while Ms. Adibi was at the University of California San Francisco, but were completed at Pitt Public Health, where she’s now an assistant professor of epidemiology and obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive sciences.“These findings provide evidence for the molecular basis by which phthalates may alter placental functions, and they provide a preliminary mechanistic hypothesis for opposite responses by sex,” the study concludes, showing the different impacts based on sex.
美国疾病控制和预防中心称:“邻苯二甲酸酯的暴露在美国人口中普遍存在。”美国环境保护局称,邻苯二甲酸酯“暴露浓度超过最大污染物水平[水中]时引起以下终身性后果:对肝脏和睾丸的损害冷宫宠后,生殖变异和诱导癌症。在儿童玩具和其它产品中使用邻苯二甲酸酯应有一些限制。
The CDC says “phthalate exposure is widespread in the U.S. population.” The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency says that phthalate “has the potential to cause the following effects from lifetime exposure at levels above maximum contaminant levels [in water]: damage to liver and testes, reproductive effects and cancer. There are some restrictions for the use of phthalates in children’s toys and other products.

美国食品和药物管理局说,他们正在继续监测研究,但是说“不清楚邻苯二甲酸酯对人体健康有什么影响”。但一个由美国国家毒理学计划于1998年至2000年召集的专家小组,即美国国家环境健康科学研究所认为,在大多数情况下,接触邻苯二甲酸盐的生殖风险是比较小的龙大谷 。
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration says it’s continuing to monitor research李司南 , but says it is “not clear what effect林慧仪 , if any, phthalates have on human health.”“An expert panel convened from 1998 to 2000 by the National Toxicology Program, part of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, concluded that reproductive risks from exposure to phthalates were minimal to negligible in most cases.”
成年妇女的尿代谢产物一般比肥皂、沐浴露、洗发水、化妆品和类似个人护理产品中使用的邻苯二甲酸酯的男性要高阿金芬瓦 。“然而,尿中邻苯二甲酸酯代谢物的可检测量并不意味着一种或更多会造成不利的健康影响”疾病预防控制中心指出,朴贤善对于接触浓度和健康影响还需进一步研究。
Adult women generally have higher levels of urinary metabolites than men do for phthalates used in soaps, body washes低碳贝贝, shampoos, cosmetics and similar personal care products.” However, a detectable amount of phthalate metabolites in urine “does not imply that the levels of one or more will cause an adverse health effect,” the CDC states, noting that research continues on exposure levels and potential health effects.
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